Plantar Fasciitis – Recurrent/chronic pain in heel and mid-foot on plantar (bottom) surface of foot
Big Toe Pain at Tip – Blister or Abrasion caused by restricted footwear, increased friction due to moisture in shoe during activity, or a cut
Big Toe Pain at Joint – Most commonly at metatarsophalangeal joint (where big toe meets foot) due to sprain of ligaments at the joint (AKA Turf Toe). Difficult to resolve due to important role of the joint in walking/running. Every step puts tremendous stress on the joint during “toe off” phase of the gate cycle, which increases inflammation in the damaged ligaments
Foot Pain – Causes are many (see above) and could be Bunion, Gout, Metatarsalgia, Morton’s Neuroma, Sesamoiditis, Plantar Fasciitis, Heel Spur, etc.
Heel Pain- Could be Bruise, Abrasion, Blister, Calcaneal Tendonitis (AKA Achilles Tendonitis), Heel Spur, Plantar Fasciitis, etc.
Running Blisters – Caused by improperly fitting footwear (too small, too big, wrong shape for foot, poor foot biomechanics: Pes Planus, Pes Cavus, Hallux Limitus, or running style
Rotator Cuff Syndrome - develops when one or more Rotator Cuff muscles (Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, and Subscapularis), which are the primary glenohumeral joint stability muscles, become regularly recruited for shoulder strength. This altered use of the Rotator Cuff musculature is most frequently caused by malposition of the scapula (shoulder blade) into a protracted (shoulder rounded forward) position, which decreases the mechanical advantage of the primary strength muscles. In order to continue performing activities such as lifting, pushing, and pulling, an individual must compensate with their movement patterns, recruiting additional help from adjacent (neighboring) muscles. The issue is two-fold: 1. These additionally recruited muscles are not well-suited to perform the actions and 2. These additionally recruited muscles are supposed to be performing other functions. Pain with this condition is typically felt in the posterior, superior, and lateral shoulder, but may also be perceived as “in the joint”.
Because we use our Pectoralis Major, Pectoralis Minor, Anterior Deltoid, and Biceps Femoris (muscles of the chest, front of shoulder and front of arm) for most of our daily activities, they naturally become stronger and shorter than their reciprocal (opposing) musculature. This issue is compounded by the fact that most people spend a disproportionate amount of time strength training the same muscles that are already short, disproportionately strong, and short during their workouts, magnifying the muscle imbalances, increasing the need for compensation, and negatively impacting joint range-of-motion.
Shoulder Pain – Could be due to Joint Sprain, Bicipital Tendonitis, Rotator Cuff Tendonitis, Muscle Strain, Subacromial Bursitis, Adhesive Capsulitis (AKA Frozen Shoulder), or Arthritis
Knee Pain – Could be due to Chondromalacia Patella (arthritis of undersurface of patella), Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (AKA Jumper’s Knee, Runner’s Knee, Infrapatellar Tendonitis), IT Band Syndrome (ITBS), Ligament Sprain (Medial Collateral, Lateral Collateral, Anterior Cruciate Ligament or ACL, Posterior Cruciate or PCL), Muscle Strain, Tendonitis (of any muscle tendon attaching at knee), Baker’s Cyst, Meniscus Tear, Pes Anserine Bursitis, Osgood-Schlatter Disease
ACL Tear – Disruption of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (connects lateral femoral condyle to central tibial plateau) due
IT Band Syndrome – overuse syndrome causing pain above and to the outside (lateral) of the patella (knee cap). Pain is most common during activity, especially running downhill or going down stairs. May have snapping or crackling above knee with flexion/extension.
SI Joint Pain – Causes approximately ½ of all low back pain. Pain on one side, radiates into gluteals, groin, and thigh. Pain commonly sharp, stabbing, or gnawing tenderness. Pain increases with weight bearing and movement and relieved by lying down
Hip Pain – Could be due to Bursitis (inflammation of the bursa), tendonitis, trauma to the soft tissue, arthritis, ligament sprain, or torn labrum. Mild sprains and tendonitis are common causes and usually due to muscle imbalances coupled with high activity levels and poor recovery practices or excessive abduction and rotation (splits). Pain increases with changing directions, especially at higher speeds, as well as running, jumping, and stretching
Piriformis Syndrome – also known as pseudosciatica, because the piriformis runs across the sciatic nerve at the lower portion of the buttocks. Spasming of the piriformis causes localized pain (pain in the butt, especially while seated), as well as possible irritation of the sciatic nerve down the leg. Complicated by overpronation at the foot.
Sciatica – Pain, numbness, burning, or tingling radiating from the low back down the distribution of the sciatic nerve (through the back of the thigh and calf), most commonly on only one side. This is usually due to compression of the nerve, which is approximately the diameter of your thumb, by a herniated disc or possibly a bone spur.
Lower Back Pain – One of the most common ailments across active and sedentary populations. Severity can range from minor irritation after physical activity to debilitating. Causes range from lumbar muscle strain to weak core muscles to herniated disc to SI joint ligament sprain. The exact cause of the pain must be determined by a professional in order to apply the most effective treatment for fastest and most complete resolution
Ankle Sprain – traumatic injury usually involving landing with foot inverted and plantar flexed, causing a sprain or even tear of the talofibular and tibiofibular ligaments. Poor proprioception (brain’s awareness of body position) is common contributor to repetitive injury/chronic ankle sprain.
Shin Splints - Pain along the front of the lower leg, usually brought on by repetitive running or jumping activities. Most commonly caused by tight calf muscles, improper warm-up before activity, running hills, overpronation, and vigorous participation in new activity involving running or jumping on hard surfaces. Pain is caused by sheering of tibialis muscles from the tibial attachments with associated inflammation and relieved by rest.
Bicipital Tendonitis – Pain in biceps muscle, particularly the tendon, which runs across the front of the shoulder, due to repetitive overhead throwing, swinging, or lifting activities along with poor shoulder/scapula (shoulder blade) positioning.
Tennis Elbow (AKA Lateral Epicondylitis) – Pain in the outer (lateral) elbow due to inflammation of the wrist extensor muscles at the lateral epicondyle that gets worse with time. This is an overuse injury and is the most common injury to the elbow, with a higher prevalence in racket sports, carpenters, and mechanics. Symptoms include stiffness upon waking, weakness in grip strength and pain with pronation and flexion of wrist while gripping.
Golfers Elbow/Pitcher’s Elbow (AKA Medial Epicondylitis) – Pain in the inner (medial) elbow of the wrist flexor muscles at the medial epicondyle that gets worse with time. This condition is commonly present alongside Rotator Cuff Syndrome and Bicipital Tendonitis (injuries causing pain in the shoulder). This is an overuse injury with higher prevalence in golf, tennis, and carpenters. Symptoms include stiffness in morning, aching or burning pain with elbow supination and extension.
Elbow Pain – Can be caused by a number of conditions, including lateral epicondylitis and medial epicondylitis, but could also be something more serious like a ligament sprain or fracture due to falling on an outstretched hand (FOOSH injury). The exact cause of the pain must be determined by a professional in order to apply the most effective treatment for fastest and most complete resolution
Neck Pain – Because we rely so heavily on our sense of sight in order to navigate our environment and accomplish many of our daily tasks, neck pain can be very problematic. Causes range from anterior head carriage from prolonged computer use or texting to muscle spasm restricting range of motion to whiplash injury causing ligament and muscle damage to simple joint inflammation. The exact cause of the pain must be determined by a professional in order to apply the most effective treatment for fastest and most complete resolution.
Wrist Pain – The wrist is made up of 13 bones, which means that there are a lot of joints and muscles that come together in a relatively small space. This means that there are a number of situations and conditions that can cause pain and dysfunction, decreasing your ability to properly use your hands. Causes range from malaligned carpal bones to forearm muscle tendonitis to torn ligaments to fractures. The exact cause of the pain must be determined by a professional in order to apply the most effective treatment for fastest and most complete resolution.
Tendonitis of the Wrist – Inflammation of any wrist or hand extensor or flexor muscles tendon as it runs through the retinaculum (band of soft tissue that holds tendons in place for leverage). These conditions are most effectively treated with joint mobilization and soft tissue therapy instead of rest, bracing, or surgery.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) – Compression of the Median Nerve in the carpal tunnel, a passage in the wrist where the finger flexor tendons run pass through. True CTS involves a “pins and needles” sensation of the thumb, index finger, and middle finger, and many people with wrist pain mistakenly think they are suffering from this more serious condition. Maintaining proper movement of the carpal bones and ensuring proper muscle balance throughout this compact space greatly reduce the likelihood of developing CTS.
Herniated Disks – Protrusion of the inner substance of an intervertebral disc through a defect in the outer layers of the disc and applying pressure to a spinal nerve as it exits the spinal column. This condition is most common in the lower cervical spine and lower lumbar spine. The symptoms are made worse by weight bearing, changing positions, coughing, or sneezing. Many people assume that they have a herniated disc causing low back pain, when in reality; other causes are much more common. A herniated disc will almost always be accompanied by intense, lightning-like pain into an arm (cervical herniation) or leg (lumbar herniation). The likelihood of developing this condition increases with repetitive heavy lifting, especially with incorrect form, lifting while twisting or straining, and trauma. Regaining proper range-of-motion and muscle balance greatly improves symptoms when this condition is present.
Pulled/Strained Muscles – Injury to a muscle, tendon, or other connective tissue due to either trauma or repetitive stress. Most commonly due to overtraining, under conditioning, overloading muscles with more weight for the muscle group or body position. The severity can range from minor to partial tearing of the soft tissue.
Hamstring Pain – Commonly strained due to chronic anterior pelvic tilt shutting off gluteal musculature, which causes more stress on the hamstrings. The most common location for injury is where muscle belly meets the tendon close to the pelvis. In more severe cases, a “popping” or “slipping” sensation can be felt, indicating some degree of tearing. The exact cause of the pain must be determined by a professional in order to apply the most effective treatment for fastest and most complete resolution.
Lack of Flexibility – This is a complex topic that has many causes for various body types, gender, or activities. There are additional factors like hydration, biomechanics, and age that can impact a person’s flexibility. It is very important to be professionally assessed in order to select the most appropriate activities and strategies to improve flexibility, especially when injury prevention and enhanced performance are the goals.
Proper Stretching – There are two types of stretching that should be utilized in relation to an active lifestyle. The first is dynamic (movement based), which helps lubricate joints and increase blood flow to muscles without putting much stress on the body, and should be performed before exercise. The second is static (reach and hold), which puts tension on the muscles in order to forcefully lengthen them, and should be performed primarily after exercise when the muscles have been warmed up. At TRIFACTIVE, we teach a comprehensive approach to utilizing both methods to improve performance and reduce the risk of injury.